Indian Politics

by - October 20, 2019

            A joint family broke up with a family into three parts, who were reared as a family now, but no family came to peace today, and never will. Most miserable mother still crying. What more can those who leave their mother and what get from their next generation? Doesn't it seem random? The mother of undivided India ... If some selfish people did not split the country with Lord Mountbatten's hands then today, the truly undivided India would get the best seat in the court of the world. Lord Mountbatten came to the Viceroy of India on March 22, 1947, India's independence was announced in June 1948, but for some unknown reason; In August 1947, India announced that it would be independent. Who will take the turn now? Not realizing Gandhi's undivided India's views of that day, then Congress leaders Jhalal Nehru as Prime Minister and Mohammed Ali Jinnah as Prime Minister of Pakistan. The rest was undivided Bengal ... The undivided Bengal Chief Minister Shahid Surabardi also demanded an independent East Bengal (now Bangladesh). Else Prafulla Kumar Ghosh, the first Chief Minister of Independent West Bengal. Despite the unwillingness of many, the country was divided, and the bloodshed started today, sometimes in Uttar Pradesh, sometimes in Gujarat, sometimes in Bangladesh, sometimes in Pakistan, sometimes in West Bengal and sometimes in South India. We do not know the answer to why we could not overcome religious cynicism. We are guilty of this, we do not find joy in bursting head-to-head with one brother, burning another house ... whether Hindus or Muslims, we are all defeated repeatedly against the radical fundamentalism of all religions. Anyone can easily shake us off in the guise of a little religion. So the real weakness is that we are ordinary people. What's the benefit of blaming someone else? But if India were to become independent in June 1948, then maybe we would have got another India and Gandhiji would not have to leave the world. A few days ago I read an article in the paper about 5 years of country division ... stay and not raise ... If Germany can be one, will India be able to become an undivided India again by eliminating all the troubles .... I am hoping for a little imagination.
      At present, India is a parliamentary general with 29 states and 7 union territories. The Indian economy is the 12th largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the fourth largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. As a result of the fiscal reforms policy adopted by the Government of India in 1991, India is second in the fastest growing economic system in terms of financial growth. However, extreme poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition are still major problems in India. India is a multi-religious, multilingual, and multinational state in cultural perspective. The variety of wildlife and plant world is also seen in this country.
       The framework of the underlying constitution within the politics of India works. India is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic in which India's president is head of state and India's prime minister is head of government. India follows the dual polity system, i.e. A double government (federal in nature) that consists of the central authority at the center and states at the periphery. The constitution describes both the central and state governments ' administrative powers and limits, and is well-recognized, static, and considered supreme.
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      There is a provision for a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper house, the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), which represents the Indian Federation of States, and a lower house, the Lok Sabha (House of the People), which represents people of India as a whole. An independent judiciary, headed by the Supreme Court, is provided by the Indian Constitution. The task of the Court is to protect the constitution, settle disputes between the central government and the states, settle the nullification of any central or state laws that run counter to the constitution, and protect citizens ' fundamental rights by issuing writings for enforcement in violation cases.
Voting Machine
 There are 545 members in the Lok Sabha, out of which 543 are elected from the 543 Indian constituencies and the other 2 are from the Anglo-Indian community. There are 245 members in the Rajya Sabha, out of which 233 are elected by indirect elections by a single transferable vote and the other 12 members are nominated/nominated by the President of India. Governments are set up every five years (unless specified otherwise) by parties winning a majority of members in their respective lower houses (Lok Sabha in the central government and Vidhan Sabha in the states). in 1951, the first general election of India occurred, won by the Indian National Congress, a political party that continued to dominate subsequent elections until 1977, when it first joined a non-Congress government in independent India. The 1990s saw the end of one-party rule and coalition governments rise. The 16th Lok Sabha elections, held from April 2014 to May 2014, brought back the country's single-party rule, with the Bharatiya Janata Party being able to claim a majority in the Lok Sabha.
         Indian politics have become a dynastic affair in recent decades. Possible reasons for this could be party stability, absence of party organizing, independent civil society associations that support mobilizing parties and centralized financing of elections. In 2016, the Economist Intelligence Unit described India as a "deficient democracy." However, under the current party's rule, many state governments were rated by non-governmental organizations as near-dictatorships, or "authoritarian regimes" in 2019.

       Now there are so many parties in Indian Democracy such as Indian National Congress, Bharat Mata Party,  All India Trinamul Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, The Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist), All-time Anna Dravid Munnetra Koragam (AIADMK), Arunachal Congress, Assam People's Council, Biju Janata Dal  (BJD), Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation CPI (ML) Dravid Munnetra Koragam (DMK), Shibsena, Akali Dal, Janata Dal,  Federal party of Manipur and many others.

List of Presidents of India from 1947 - 2019 

1. Dr. Rajendra Prasad (1950-62)
       Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first President of India, who worked as president for two terms. He was also the Constituent Assembly's President and the Indian Independence Movement's Political Executive. In 1962 he won the Bharat Ratna award.
2. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1962)
    Born on September 5, 1888, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan is celebrating this day as the Day of the Teacher. Bharat Ratna was awarded in 1954.
3. Dr. Zakir Husain (1967)
      Dr. Zakir Husain was India's first Muslim president and died in his office. The acting president has been made the immediate vice president, V.V. Giri. Between July 20, 1969 to August 24, 1969, the Supreme Court's chief justice Mohammad Hidayatullah became acting president. He was India's most well-known tabla game.
      In 2002, the Government of India awarded Mohammad Hidayatullah to the Padma Bhushan in the field of sculpture. He has brought about an intellectual movement in India. Jamia Millia Islamia, the National Muslim University, was founded under his leadership.
4. V. V. Giri (1969)
     V.V. Giri was India's fourth president. Varahagiri Venkata Giri was his full name. He became the only person elected as an independent candidate to be president. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1975.
5. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1974)
      India's fifth president was Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed. He was the second president to die in the president's post. BD Jattha was President of the Acting.
6. Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy (1977)
     Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy became India's sixth president. He was Andhra Pradesh's first Chief Minister. He was directly elected from Lok Sabha speaker to the post and became the youngest president who occupied Rashtrapati Bhavan and challenged for the presidential post twice.

7. Giani Zail Singh (1982)
     Prior to being the President, he was also the Chief Minister of Punjab and the Minister at the Center. He also used the Indian Post Office Bill's Pocket Veto. During his presidency, many incidents took place, such as Operation Blue Star, the assassination of Indira Gandhi and the 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
8. R. Venkataraman (1987)
     R. Venkataraman was elected as President of India from 25 July 1987 to 25 July 1992. Between 1984 to 1987, he was Vice-President of India. He has received many honors from different parts of the world. He is a receiver of Tamra Patra for his contribution to India's freedom struggle. Apart from this the Russian government has confessed to writing about the Soviet Land Prize for travelogue on former Tamil Nadu Prime Minister, Kumaraswami Kamaraj's.
9. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma (1992)
     Before becoming president he was India's eighth vice president. From 1952 to 1956, from 1956 to 1967, he was Bhopal's chief minister and member of the cabinet. The International Bar Association gave him the 'Living Legend of Law Award of Recognition' due to multi-achievements in the legal profession.
10. K R Narayanan (1997)
    K. R. Narayanan was India's first Dalit president and the first Malayali to hold the country's highest office. He was the first president to vote in the Lok Sabha elections and addressed the assembly of the state.
11. Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam (2002)
    Dr. A. P.J. Abdul Kalam is known as ' India's missile guy. ' He was the first scientist to take over the presidential post and India's first president to receive the most votes. In his directorial, Rohini-1 satellites, Agni and Prithvi missiles were successfully launched. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were carried out in India in 1998 after he was seen in a crucial political, institutional and technological role by the initial nuclear test of 1974. In 1997, he won the Bharat Ratna award.
12. Shrimati Pratibha Singh Patil (2007)
    Before becoming president, she was the governor of Rajasthan. She was five times a member of the Maharashtra Legislative Assembly from 1962 to 1985 and in 1991 was elected to the Lok Sabha from Amravati. Not only this, but she is also the first woman to fly to Sukhoi.
13. Pranab Mukherjee (2012)
    Until contesting the presidential election, Pranab Mukherjee was the central government finance minister. In 1997, he received the Best Parliamentary Award and in 2008, Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian award.
14. Ram Nath Kovind (2017)
    Ram Nath Kovind was born in Uttar Pradesh, India, on October 1, 1945. He's a lawyer and a politician from India. He is India's fourteenth and present leader. On July 25, 2017, he became the president and is a member of the Bhartiya Janata Party. He's Bihar's former governor. He won him recognition across the political spectrum for his approach to political issues. His achievements as a governor were the establishment of a judicial commission to investigate corruption in universities.
List of Prime Ministers of India from 1947 - 2019 
1. Jawahar Lal Nehru
5 August 1947-27 May 1964
16 years, 286 days
First Prime Minister of India and long-term-serving as a PM of India, first to die in office.
2. Gulzarilal Nanda
27 May, 1964 to 9 June 1964,
13 days
First acting PM of India
3. Lal Bahadur Shastri
June 9, 1964 to January 11, 1966
1 year, 216 days
He gave the slogan of 'Jai Jawan Jai Kisan' during the Indo-Pak war of 1965
4. Indira Gandhi
24 January 1966 to 24 March 1977
11 years, 59 days
First lady Prime Minister of India
5. Morarji Desai
24 March 1977 - 28 July 1979
2 years, 116 days
Oldest to become PM and first to resign from office
6. Charan Singh
28 July, 1979 to 14 Jan. 1980
170 days
Only PM who did not face the Parliament
7. Indira Gandhi
14 Jan.1980 to 31 Oct 1984
4 years, 291 days
First lady who served as PM for second term
8. Rajiv Gandhi
31 Oct, 1984 to 2 Dec. 1989
5 years, 32 days
Youngest to become PM @ 40 years

9. V. P. Singh
Dec. 2 1989 to 10 Nov. 1990
343 days
First PM to step down after vote with no confidence
10. Chandra Shekhar
November 10, 1990 to June 21, 1991
223 days
He belongs to Samajwadi Janata Party
11. P. V. Narasimha Rao
21 June 1991 to 16 May 1996
4 years, 330 days
First PM from south India
12. Atal Bihari Vajpayee
May 16, 1996 to June 1, 1996
16 days
The shortest tenure for PM
13. H. D. Deve Gowda
June 1, 1996 to April 21, 1997
324 days
He belongs to Janata Dal
14. Inder Kumar Gujral
21 April 1997 to 19 March 1998
332 days
15. Atal Bihari Vajpayee
March 19, 1998 to May 22, 2004
6 years, 64 days
 First non-congress PM who completed his term as PM
16. Manmohan Singh
22 May 2004 to 26 May 2014
10 years, 4 May 2 days
First Sikh PM
17. Narendra Modi
26 May 2014, Incumbent
4th Prime Minister of India who served two consecutive tenures
Political Parties 
       Every political party in India - whether a national or regional/state party - must be a symbol and must be registered with the Election Commission of India. Symbols are used in the Indian political system to identify political parties so that illiterate people can vote by recognizing the party symbols.
The Commission asserted the following five principles in the current amendment to the Symbols Order:

  • A party must have a legislative presence, national or state.
  • A national party's legislative presence must be in the Lok Sabha. The legislative representation of a State Party must be in the Legislature of the Republic.
  • A party can set up a candidate only from its own members.
  • A party which loses legitimacy shall not immediately lose its symbol, but shall be allowed to use that symbol for some time to attempt to regain its identity. (However, the grant of such facility to the party shall not mean the extension of other facilities to it, as are available to the recognized parties, such as free time on Doordarshan or AIR, free supply of copies of electoral rolls, etc.)

       A party should be recognized solely on the basis of its own election performance and not because it is a splinter group of some other recognized party.

  • A political party will be eligible to be recognized as a national party if - 
  • It secures at least six percent (6%) of the valid votes polled in any four or more states, at a general election to the House of People or to the State Legislative Assembly; and
  • It also wins at least four seats from any party or province in the People's House.

  • It wins at least two percent (2%) of the seats in the House of the People (i.e., 12 seats in the current House with 545 members), and these members are elected from at least three different states.
Similarly, a political party may be regarded as a party of a State if-

  • It secures at least six percent (6%) of the valid votes polled in the state at a general election, either to the House of People or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned; and
  • In addition, it wins at least two seats in the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned.
  • It wins at least three percent (3%) of the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of the State, or at least three seats in the Assembly, whichever is more.
             India has a tradition of alliances between parties and dissolution of alliances. However, there are three party alliances regularly aligning at a national level competing for government positions. The member parties work in harmony for gratifying national interests, though parties can jump ships. The three alliances are-
          National Democratic Alliance (NDA) - Center-Right coalition led by Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) was formed in 1998 after the elections. The NDA formed a government, although the government did not last long as support from the AIADMK with it resulted in the 1999 general elections, in which the NDA won and resumed power. The coalition government went on to complete the full five-year term, becoming the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2014 General Elections, the NDA once again returns to power for the second time, with a historic mandate of 336 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats. BJP itself gained 282 seats, thereby electing Narendra Modi as the prime minister of India. In a historic win, the NDA stormed with a combined strength of 353 seats to power for the third term with 2019, with the BJP itself capturing an absolute majority of 303 seats.
         United Progressive Alliance (UPA) - Center-Left coalition led by Indian National Congress; This alliance was created after the 2004 general election, with the alliance forming the government. The alliance even after losing some of its members was reelected in 2009 General Elections with Manmohan Singh as head of the government. The alliance has been in the opposition since the 2014 elections, with the INC being the main opposition party, but without the official position of the Leader of Opposition because they failed to gather the minimum required seats.
Third front  
    A coalition of parties that do not belong to any of the above camps due to certain issues. One of the parties in the alliance, the CPI (M), prior to the 2009 general elections, was a member of the UPA. There is no official leading party in the alliance, and smaller parties often enter and leave the alliance on political convenience. Many of these parties are ally at the national level but against each other at the state level. The inherent problem with such a third front is that they are only bound together by the fact that they are not aligned to either of the two 'main' alliances and not through similar ideological stances. This often means that this alliance is simply an alliance in the name and does not really provide a united front which can serve as an alternative to the two historically significant alliances. Therefore, despite the presence of this "third front," and other seeming alternatives for those seeking options outside the INC or BJP, Indian politics and a large facto two-party system at the national level.
Candidate selection
        Pre-election alliances with parties deciding to share seats are common in India. This is seen on a state-by-state basis rather than at the national level. Candidate selection begins after seat sharing has been agreed by alliance partners.
      Indian political parties have a low level of internal party democracy and therefore, in Indian elections, both at the state or national level, party candidates are typically selected by party elites, the high command of the party more commonly called. The party elites use a number of criteria to select candidates. These include the ability of the candidates to finance their own election, their educational attainment, and the candidates at the level of the organization that has their respective constituencies. Quite often, nominee crime is correlated with the last criterion.

Elections of India include elections for:

  • Members of Parliament in Lok Sabha, 
  • Members of the Legislative Assembly of State, 
  • Members of Parliament in Rajya Sabha, 
  • Member of the Legislative Council of state, 
  • Members of Local Panchayat or Council of City Corporations.
Local governance
            The 1992 Constitutional (73rd Amendment) Act came into force on April 24, 1993 in order to give constitutional status to the institutions of the Panchayati Raj. As of 24 December 1996, the Act was expanded to Panchayats in eight of the state's tribal areas, namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.
Panchayat Raj System
      The Act aims to introduce a 3-tier Panchayati Raj system for all states with a population of more than 2 million, hold Panchayat elections on a regular basis every 5 yrs, provide Scheduled Castes' reservation seats, Scheduled Tribes and Women, appoint a State Finance Commission to make recommendations on the financial competences of the Panchayats and create a District Planning Committee, prepare a draft development plan for the district.

Indian First Election Started (1952)

Jawaharlal Nehru
  • This first party Indian National Congress was started in 1885. The party was aimed to protest British rule in India.Hindu 
  • Mahasabha Party : It was formed officially in the year 1909, under the name of Punjab Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Bharat Ratna Sri Madan Mohan Malviya. It changed its present name Akhila Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha in the year 1921. Although, unofficially it was formed somewhere between in the years 1890-1895. It formed in the late 1890s as an umbrella group for various Hindu organizations working for Hindus welfare.
        India held its first constitutional national elections in 1952, recording a turnout of more than 60 percent. An overwhelming majority was won by the National Congress Party, and Jawaharlal Nehru began a second term as prime minister. President Prasad was also elected by the First Parliament of India's Electoral College for a second term.

Parliament of India
       The last Indian general election 17th Lok Sabha of 2019 was held in seven phases from April 11 to May 19 and the result declared on 23rd May 2019.
National Democratic Alliance (357)
Bharatiya Janata Party (303)
Janata Dal (United States) (16)
Lok Janshakti Party (5)
Shiromani Akali Dal (2)
Apna Dal (Sonelal) (2)
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (3)
All Jharkhand Students Union (3)
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (1)
Mizo National Front (3)
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party (1)
National People's Party (1)
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party (1)
Shiv Sena (18)
Others (96)
All India Trinamool Congress (22)
Biju Janata Dal (12)
Bahujan Samaj Party (10)
Samajwadi Party (4)
Telangana Rashtra Samiti (9)
Communist Pary of India (Marxist) (3)
Telugu Desam Party (4)
Naga People's Front (3)
All India Masjid-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (1)
Communist Party of India (2)
Aam Aadmi Party (3)
All India United Democratic Front (3)
YSR Congress Party (22)
Vacant (2)
Independent (2)
United Progressive Alliance (92)
Indian National Congress (52)
Nationalist Congress Party (5)
Indian Union Muslim League (3)
Janata Dal (Secular) (2)
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (3)
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (1)
Kerala Congress (M) (1)
Revolutionary Socialist Party (1)
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi (1)
Independent (1)
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2)

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