Kashmir Issue

by - October 31, 2019

Dal Lake

                Kashmir's history has been recorded since 3450 B.C. through Rajatarangini, written by Kalhana. Kashmir has near about 5500 years of history, the Kashmir Kings lineage, and the Kashmir Valley formation of the pre-Mahabharat era, Kashyapa Rishi, cutting through the gaps in the Baramulla hills. Kashmir Kings Baladitya Name "Kashmir" means "desiccated land" (Sanskrit: Ka = water and Shimmer = desiccate). In Rajatarangini (Riverflow of Kings), a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana around 1150 CE, it is stated that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake, which was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyapa, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). When Kashmir Valley was drained, Kashyapa asked Brahmans to settle there. That's how Kashmir Pundits began to live in the valley with a human population.
King Baladitya
                 The name Kashyapa is connected by history and tradition of the lake, and the main town or collection of dwellings in the valley was called Kashyapa-Pura, which has been identified with the Kaspapyros of Hecataeus (apud Stephanus of Byzantium) and Kaspatyros. of Herodotus. Kashmir is also believed to be the land of Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.
            Kambojas ruled Kashmir during the Mahabharata era with a republican regime from Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava capital city, during the epic period.shortened to Rajapura, which is modern Rajauri.
         Kambojas ruled Kashmir during the Mahabharata era with a republican regime from Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava capital city, during the epic period.shortened to Rajapura, which is modern Rajauri.
              Peer Panjal, which is a part of modern Kashmir, is a witness to this fact. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskrit tribal term Panchala. Muslims prefixed the word peer to memory in it Siddha Faqir and the name thereafter is said to have changed into Peer Panjal.
Nadir Shah
                    In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Shah Mir dynasty. Islamic monarchs ruled Kashmir for the next five centuries, including the Mughal Empire, which ruled from 1586 to 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1747 to 1819. That year, Kashmir was conquered by the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the territory from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu, became the new ruler of Kashmir. Under British Crown paramountcy (or tutelage) the rule of its descendants lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a controversial language, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China.

Sikh rule (1820–1846)
Sikh Rule
                      After four centuries of Muslim (1346–1580) rule under the Mughals (1580–1750), Kashmir fell to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of Punjab. As the Kashmiris had been under the Afghans, they were always welcomed by the new Sikh rulers. However, the Sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and the Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive, protected by the remoteness of the Kashmir capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore. The Sikhs passed a variety of anti-Muslim rules, including imposing death sentences for cow slaughter, closing the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the azaan, calling out Muslim audiences. Kashmir had also begun to attract European visitors, many of whom had the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and the Sikhs under the exorbitant taxes. High taxes, according to some of the most recent accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. After a drought in 1832, however, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the land's produce and also began offering farmers interest-free loans; Kashmir became the second-highest revenue earner for the Sikh empire.  Kashmiri shawls became famous worldwide during this time, attracting many buyers, especially in the west.
                      In 1780, after the death of Ranjit Deo, the Raja of Jammu, the Jammu Kingdom (south of the Kashmir Valley) was also captured by the Sikhs and subsequently, until 1846, became a tributary of the Sikhs. Subsequently,  Gulab Singh, the grandnephew of Ranjit Deo, sought service at Ranjit Singh's court, distinguished himself in later campaigns, in particular, the annexation of the Kashmir Valley, and in 1820 became governor of Jammu for his services. With his help of Officer, Zorawar Singh, Gulab Singh soon captured the Sikhs in the lands of Ladakh and Baltistan to the east and north-east, respectively, of Jammu.
Geographical Location
             Jammu and Kashmir is the Union Territory of India, which has been an independent state for a long time. But this region is mainly located in the Himalayan highlands. Himachal Pradesh and Punjab state of India are located to the south of this Union Territory of India. Located north of Jammu and Kashmir, the Pak-occupied Gilgit-Baltistan region and formerly the Union Territory of India are Ladakh. Pakistan occupies Gilgit-Baltistan in Kashmir-occupied Kashmir, on the west and northwest of the Line of Actual Control. Makes two Union Territories, namely Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The modern state of Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 86024 square miles (prior to 1947) extending from 32 degrees 78 'to 36 degrees 58' N and from 73 degrees 27' to 80 degrees 72' E. 
Flowers in Kashmir Valley
        The Jammu and Kashmir Valley consist of these two regions, the central territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Srinagar is the summer capital of the region and the winter capital of Jammu. Kashmir Valley is famous for its natural beauty. Since there are many Hindu temples in the Jammu region, it is a sacred pilgrimage site for Hindus.

Kashmir Issue : When and How did it Start?
Period of Hari Singh
Hari Singh
                Hari Singh, Raja Amar Singh Jamwal's only surviving child, was born in the palace of Amar Mahal, Jammu on September 23, 1895. Maharaja Pratap Singh's brother, then Jammu and Kashmir's Maharaja. Since there was no issue with the Maharaja, Hari Singh was Jammu and Kashmir's throne.
             In 1903, Hari Singh served as a page of honor to Lord Curzon at the Grand Delhi Durbar. He was admitted to Ajmer's Mayo College at the age of thirteen. His father died a year later, in 1909, and the British took a keen interest as their guardian in his education and commander Major H. K. Brar.  Hari Singh went to the British-run Imperial Cadet Corps at Dehra Dun for defense training, after Mayo College,
           Maharaja Pratap Singh appointed him as Commander-in-Chief of the State Forces in 1915. Following his death of Pratap Singh in 1925, Hari Singh ascended the throne of Jammu and Kashmir. He made primary education compulsory in the state, introduced laws prohibiting child marriage, and opened places of worship to the lower castes.
                Maharaja Hari Singh's Seal had a top of the Crown. Under the crown stood a Katar or ceremonial dagger. Two soldiers held flags. An image of the sun was between them, that symbolized his Rajput lineage from Lord Surya, the Hindu Sun God.
                     In 1931, Kashmir agitation & Kashmir Martyrs' Day. It was claimed that Hari Singh was hostile to the Indian National Congress, partially because of the close friendship between Kashmiri political activist and socialist Sheik Abdullah and leader of Congress Jawaharlal Nehru. He also rejected the communalist perspective of the Muslim League and its leaders as reflected by their concept of two nations.
Partition and Accession
Hari Singh
                      The last Maharaja of Kashmir in 1947, after India gained independence from British rule, Jammu and Kashmir could have joined India, Pakistan, or remained independent. Hari Singh originally maneuvered to maintain his independence by playing off India and Pakistan. There was a common conviction that princely kings, deciding to accede to India/Pakistan, should respect the wishes of the population, but few rulers took any steps to consult such decisions. Jammu and Kashmir were a Muslim majority state; However, Hari Singh, being a Hindu, wanted Kashmir to be a part of India. 
          "Now, therefore, I said Shriman Inder Mahander Rajrajeswar Maharajadhiraj Shri Hari Singhji, Jammu and Kashmir Naresh Tatha Tibbetadi Deshadhipathi, Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir, in my sovereignty of exercise and over my said State does hereby execute this Instrument of Accession [ ...] "
           Through signing this legal document, known as the Accession Instrument, on October 26, 1947, Hari Singh, Jammu and Kashmir's Maharaja, decided that the state would become part of India.
              Pakistan had finally sent troops to Kashmir, but nearly two-thirds of the state had been taken over by Indian forces. Pakistani troops have secured the territories of Gilgit and Baltistan. Fighting between Indian forces and the tribesmen and Pakistani troops persisted in what is generally known as the first war between India and Pakistan for more than a year after the accession.
              Finally, a ceasefire was arranged by the United Nations (UN) at the end of 1948. The ceasefire was agreed by both countries after long negotiations and came into effect. On January 5, 1949, the UN adopted the terms of cease-fire set out in a UN resolution of August 13, 1948.
         India and Pakistan have different views on the accession instrument and the conditions under which it was enforced. The condition mentioned by the Indian government is: "The State of Jammu and Kashmir's accession to India, signed by the Maharaja [erstwhile ruler of the State] on 26th Oct 1947, was totally executed under the Government of India Act [1935] and International law and was total and irrevocable. The Accession was also supported by the National Conference, the state's largest political party. There was no provision in the Indian Independence Act for any conditional accession.
              As such, considering the emergency situation, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947, joining the whole of his princely state (including Jammu, Kashmir, Northern Areas, Ladakh, part of Karakoram Tract and Aksai Chin) to the Dominion of India. General Chat Chat Lounge These events triggered the first Indo-Pakistan war.

                      Pressure from Nehru and Sardar Ballav Bhai Patel eventually compelled Hari Singh to appoint his son and heir, Yuvraj (crown prince) Karan Singh, as Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, though he remained titular Maharaja of the state until, 1952, when the monarchy was abolished. General Chat Chat Lounge He was also forced to appoint the popular Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah as the Prime Minister of Kashmir. He had a contentious relationship with both Nehru and Abdullah. Karan Singh was commissioned 'Sadar-e-Riyasat' ('Head of State') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964. Abdullah would later be dismissed from his position as Prime Minister of Kashmir and jailed by Karan Singh.
                     Hari Singh spent his final days in Bombay (Now in Mumbai). He died on 26 April 1961. As per Maharaja's will, his ashes were brought to Jammu and spread all over J&K and immersed in the Tawi River at Jammu. 
                        Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan have worsened due to Muslim main Kashmir and other factors. Then there was the Indo-Pakistan war in 1965 and the Kargil war in 1999.
Article 370 of the Constitution         
Parliament of India
The Constitution of India contained Article 370 on October 17, 1949. Under this section, Jammu and Kashmir was exempt from the Indian Constitution (except Article 1) and that state was allowed to draft its own constitution. This clause states that the power of Parliament is limited in that State. Any central law, including India's enactment, goes as far as the State to keep it in force. But the state government must agree on other matters. In 1947, the partition of British India into India and Pakistan from the time the Indian Constitutional Law came into force, the issue of Indian inclusion became effective. As a condition of Indian integration, the Indian Parliament in Jammu and Kashmir is empowered to make the final decision on defense, foreign and communication.
                The article 370 can be considered temporary. The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly could have changed, abolished it or contained it. The legislature favors holding it. Another explanation is that till the referendum, the decision to incorporate India is temporary. 
                Article 370 (3) may be abolished on the orders of the President. But such a directive requires the consent of the People's Council of Jammu and Kashmir. But the Constituent Assembly disappeared on January 26, 1957. As a result, the clause cannot be abolished. But there is another opinion, that abolition can be decided with the consent of the state legislature. 
                 Article 370 of section 1 is mentioned, where Jammu and Kashmir is placed in the list of states. It has been said that under this section, the constitution will be implemented in Jammu and Kashmir. However, on November 27, 1963, Nehru told the Lok Sabha that the section had been eroded. In Jammu and Kashmir, Article 370 has been used at least 45 times to keep the Indian Constitution in effect. In this way, the special status of Jammu and Kashmir has been almost ruined on the basis of the President's orders. According to the directive in 1945, almost the entire constitution, with all the amendments, has been implemented in Jammu and Kashmir. 94 of the 97 federal listings are applicable in Jammu and Kashmir, out of 395 sections applicable 260 sections in the states of J & K, and 7 of the 13 schedules are also in place. 
               Article 370 has been used multiple times to amend the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir even though the President does not have the power under this Article. In order to impose more than a year of presidential rule in Punjab, the government needed to amend the 59th, 64th, 67th, and 68th Constitutions. But in the case of Jammu and Kashmir, by applying only this clause, the work goes away. No proposal has been passed in the Legislative Assembly for the enactment of Article 249 for the enlisted states in Jammu and Kashmir, which came into force on the recommendation of the Governor. From that point of view, the Article reduces the rights of Jammu and Kashmir in comparison to other states. Now, that clause is more favorable to the state of India than Jammu and Kashmir. 
                On August 5, 2019, the President of India, Mr. Ramnath Kobind, invalidated Article 370 and Section 35 (a), diminishing the status and privileges of the special states of Jammu and Kashmir and dividing Jammu and Kashmir into two, they were declared as two Union Territories of India.
                Article 3 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, states that Jammu and Kashmir is an integral part of India.

Some Militant Activities during this period  

1989 : During late 1989 and early 1990, the Hindus of the Kashmir Valley were forced to flee the Valley as targeted by JKLF and Islamist campaigners. Approximately out of 350,000 to 6,50,000 Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley in 1990 only 2,500–3,000. remain there in 2016. According to the Indian government, more than 62,000 families are registered as Kashmiri refugees including some Sikh and Muslim families. Most families were resettled in Jammu, National Capital Region, Delhi, and other neighboring states.
 1998 : The 1998 Wandhama killings refer to the 25 January 1998 killing of 23 Kashmiri Pandit Hindus in J&K's town of Wandhama. Four children, nine women, and ten men were among the victims. A Hindu temple and a house were also totally demolished by the attackers. The Lashkar-e-Taiba was blamed for perpetrating the massacre.
          Prankote Masakare Was the Killing of 24 Hindus in the Villages of Prankote and Dakikote in Udhampur District of Jammu and Kashmir and 17 April 1998.
      Chapnari incident was a massacre of 25 Hindu villagers in Chapnari (also called  Champanari by some sources ) in the village of Doda district in Jammu & Kashmir on 19 June 1998, by Pakistan-backed terrorist groups.
2000 : The Chittisinghpura massacre refers to the mass murder of 35 Sikh villagers in the district of Anantnag, Jammu and Kashmir, India, on 20 March 2000.
        August 2000, at least 89 people (official count) to 105 (as reported by PTI) were massacred in Kashmir on August 1 and 2 and at least 62 people were injured in at least five separate coordinated attacks by separatist Kashmiri militants. Kashmir Valley district of Anantnag and Doda in India.
      Out of these, 32 were killed on 2 August in 2000, at Amarnath Yatra massacre at Nunwan base camp in Pahalgam. Dead included 21 Hindu pilgrims, seven local Muslim shopkeepers, and three security officers, and also wounded seven more men.
   There were so many massacres/rape cases that happened (Hindu Pandit family/laborers/villegers)  during the period 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009. Also, many villagers/protesters of J&K state also died during the open fire by the forces.strict in Jammu & Kashmir on 19 June 1998, by Pakistan-backed terrorist groups.
2014 : On 5th December 2014, there were Four Different terror attacks at multiple places in the Kashmir Valley of Tea State of Jammu and Kashmir in India. 
Mastermind of Uri Attack
2016 : Four heavily armed terrorists attacked on September 18, 2016, near the city of Uri in Jammu and Kashmir, India. It has been reported as "the most deadly attack in two decades on security forces in Kashmir." The Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorist group was involved in planning and carrying out the attack. The area of the Kashmir Valley was a center of unrest at the time of the attack.
2018 : Jaish-e-Mohammed fidayeen targeted a camp of the Indian Army in Sunjuwan, Jammu, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 10 February 2018 in the morning. Six troops, three attackers and one man, including 14 civilians, five women and children, were killed and 20 wounded. In addition, this attack coincided with Afzal Guru's death anniversary.
Pulwama Attack
2019 : A military loaded truck carrying security personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was targeted at Lethpora (near Awantipora) in the district of Pulwama, J & K, India on 14 February 2019. The attack resulted in the deaths of 40 staff and the attacker from the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). The Islamist militant Jais-e-Mahammad declared/announced the attack made by them.
                The 2019 Kulgam Masakare To Killing of Seven Bengali Muslim Labors (Murshidabad district of W.B.) in the Kulgam District of Jammu and Kashmir, India by Foreign-Based terrorists.

                  Besides all of this stone-throwing was a regular incident in Kashmir. Stone pelting in Kashmir refers to a criminal assault in the form of stone-throwing by Kashmiri youth who pelt, bombard or throw stones at Indian forces and J&K Police deployed for crowd manage in Jammu and Kashmir. In the local language, it is called "Kanni Jung", means fight with stones and stone-pelters is called Sangbaaz.

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