About India

by - November 02, 2019


Himalaya above cloud
    India is a country in South Asia. Republic of India is the official name of the country. It is the largest in South Asia and the seventh-largest in the world in terms of geographical size. On the other hand, in terms of population, this country is the second most populous and the largest democratic state in the world. It is located on the western border of India, Pakistan, northeast China, Nepal, and Bhutan, and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Indonesia are also some of the nearby islands of India located on the Indian Ocean. The combined length of the coastline of India, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the south, the Arabian Sea to the west and the Bay of Bengal to the east, is 7,517 km (4,671 miles).
         The Indian subcontinent has been well known for its economic prosperity and cultural heritage since ancient times. Historical Indus civilization flourished in this region. Many empires were established here during various periods of history. Various history-famous trade routes protected trade and cultural relations with other regions of the world. India is the source of the four religions of the world - Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, and Sikh. In the first millennium Christianity, Zoroastrianism (Persian religion), Judaism, Christianity, and Islam entered the country and made a special impact on Indian culture. From the first half of the eighteenth century, the British East India Company gradually managed to bring most of the Indian territory under their control. By the mid-nineteenth century, the country had become a full-fledged British colony. Then, in a long independence struggle, India started to emerge as an independent state in 1947. By the constitution drafting of India in 1950, India had become a sovereign democratic republic. 
       At present, India is a parliamentary general with 29 states and seven union territories. The Indian economy is the 12th largest in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the fourth largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. India is second in the fastest growing economic system in terms of monetary growth today as a result of the fiscal reform policy adopted by the Indian government in 1991. However, extreme poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition are still major problems in India. India is a multi-religious, multilingual, and multinational state in a cultural perspective. The variety of wildlife and plant world is also seen in this country.
  The major rivers originating in the Himalayas are the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Both have fallen into the Bay of Bengal. The main tributaries of the Ganges are the Jamuna and Kosi rivers. Due to the low navigability of the Kosi river, there are severe floods every year. The major rivers of the peninsula are Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kabari. Flooding is less as these rivers are highly navigable. These rivers have also fallen into the Bay of Bengal. On the other hand, Narmada and Tapi have fallen in the Arabian Sea. One of the features of the Indian coastline is the Ranch of Kutch in western India and the polygamous delta region of the Sundarbans in the east, which extends into India and Bangladesh. Two islands are found in India: the Prabal and Lakshadweep Islands near the southwestern coast of India, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the volcanic archipelago of the Andaman Sea.
  • The current population of India is 1,370,973,711 as of Friday, November 1, 2019, based on the Worldometer's elaboration of the latest United Nations data. 
  • India's 2019 population is estimated at 1,366,417,754 people at mid-year according to UN data. 
  • India's population is 17.71% of the total world population. 
  • India ranks second position in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population. 
  • The population density in India is 460 per Sq.Km (1,190 people per sq.m.). The total land area is 2,973,190 Sq.Km (1,147,955 sq. Miles) 34.6% of the population is urban (471,828,300 people in 2019) 
  • The median age in India is 27.1 years.          
           India is the second-most populous country in the world. The estimated population of the country is around 137 million in 2019 years. India's population is about 17.74 % of the world's total population. In recent years, the annual population growth rate is 11.10 per thousand people or 1.11%. On average, the population increases by one every two seconds. Although the rate of migration from village to city has increased greatly in recent decades, the urban population in India has increased enormously, despite the fact that about 66.80% of Indians live in rural areas. 33.20% of the population lives in the city. The population per square kilometer is 455 in this country. Among the largest metros in India are Mumbai (formerly Bombay or Bombay), New Delhi, Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad. The sex ratio at the national level during the period of 2013-15 years is 900 women per thousand men. India has an average literacy rate of 74.04%, accounting for 82.14% of the males and 65.46% of the females, according to the Census. The lowest rate of literacy in the state of Bihar: 63.82%. The city-village literacy rate was 21.2% in 2001 years, which dropped to 16.1% in 2011. The literacy rate in rural areas is twice that of the city area. The literacy rate among the state of Kerala is 91%.

Religion Symbols
          The two major languages of India are Indo-Aryan (74% of the total population) and Dravidian (24% of the total population). Other languages are Austro-Asiatic and Tibetan-Burmese. The largest indigenous language of India is Hindi, which is designated as the official language of the Central Government. "Asstt. official language" is very used in English administration and commercial fields. English is unmatched in higher education. The Indian constitution has given 22 languages, including Bangla, the official language status. Tamil and Sanskrit, which have received the status of classical languages in India since ancient times, have been given the status of classical languages in the Kannada and Telugu languages by the Government of India. The number of sub-languages in India is 1,652.

         Over 80 crore (80.5%) Indians are Hindus. Other denominations include Muslims (13.4%), Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Persians, and Baha'i. It is noteworthy that India has the largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian and Bahai religious populations in the world, and that the Muslim population in India is the third-largest and the largest among non-Muslim major countries in the whole world. The indigenous population of the country is 8.1%.
      The National Flag of India is a triangular flag with saffron, white and green horizontal rectangles with twenty-four black blue "Ashoka Chakras" in the center. The current form of the flag was adopted as the official flag of the Indian Empire at a session of the Constituent Assembly on July 22, 1947. Later it became the national flag of the Republic of India. In India, this flag is commonly called the "Triangular Flag". The flag was designed on the basis of the "Swaraj" flag of the Indian National Congress of Pingali Venkaya.
Ashoke-Chakra with Indian National Flag
        The Pillar-Headed of Ashoka was adopted as the national emblem of India on January 26, 1950. The fourth lion is not seen in the form adopted by the national emblem, as it is located behind the pillar and does not appear from the front. In the center of the base of the lion's foot is seen the Dharmachakra, the bull on the right, and the long horse on the left. On the left and right sides are two edges of the Dharmachakra. An integral part of the national emblem is the motto of Satyamev Jayate (Sanskrit: सत्यमेव जयते), engraved in the Devanagari font, though which is not seen on the main pillar.

Indian Freedom Fight (British Rule, 1757-1947) 

European Rule in India

Statue of Jhansi ki Rani
        Vasco da Gama of Portugal had discovered a sea route to India. He had reached Kozhikode (Calicut, Kerala) in 1498. After this, for business, many Europeans started coming to India . They made their offices and forts in various parts of India. The British East India Company then main/major force in India. The Company's troops led by Robert Clive defeated the rulers of Bengal in 1757. This battle became famous as the Battle of Plassey. That was the starting of British rule, called as the British Raj, in India. In 1764, the Battle of Buxar was won by the English forces. After this, the British hold control in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. The Parliament of the United Kingdom passed many laws to help the British East India Company. The Regulating Act of 1773-74, the India Act of 1784-85, and the Charter Act of 1813 were addressed to help business with India. Before the First War of Independence (1857), Indians in various parts of the country had revolted against the English rule.

Indian Freedom Movement
      In 1857 until 15th August 1947, the Indian Independence Movement was a movement when India gained independence from the British Rule. The movement spanned a total of near about 90 yrs (1857–1947).

Revolt in 1857   
Mangal Pandey
         The rebellion by the Indian troops of the British Raj started in May 1857 and continued till December 1858. Many reasons had to be combined to result in this rebellion. The British rulers continuously forced to take regions dominated by Indians and made these areas part of the British Raj. They started disobeyed the old royal houses of India like the Mughals and the Peshwar. They also made the use of a special type of cartridge (immediate cause of the rebel) of Indian soldiers. The soldiers opened the cartridges with their teeth into their guns before firing. The cartridges supposedly used cow and pig fat. For Hindus, the cow is a worship animal and they do not eat beef. Similarly, Muslims dislike pork. Thus, the use of these cartridges made soldiers of both religions turn against the British. Although the British tried to replace the cartridges, the feelings remained against them. Rebellion broke out when the soldier Mangal Pandey injured a British sergeant. General Hearsey ordered Mangal Pandey to arrest another Indian soldier but he refused. Later Mangal Pandey arrested by the British Rule  and the other Indian soldier. The British killed both of them by hanging.
         This period was India's First War of Independence, an important time of Indian Independence Movement. Many leaders have emerged at the national and provincial levels, and Indians have become more aware of their rights. Social movements also helped in shaping people's outlook, trying for social change, and trying to remove bad social practices and evils like illiteracy and caste systems. During this period, many social and religious leaders worked to inspire the Indian society like Swami Vivekananda, Ramakrishna, Sri Aurobindo, Subramanya Bharathy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Rabindranath Tagore and Dadabhai Naoroji.        
They spread the message of self-confidence, removing of social evils, and making India free from the domination of foreign power. Lokmanya Tilak was such a leader who was not very modest in his views. The British arrested him. In the court, he told : "Swaraj (independence) is my birthright". Till India became free, this idea of Swaraj later became the main policy and philosophy of India's independence movement in the following decades. 
In 1885, at the suggestion of Allan Octavian Hume, a retired British civil servant, seventy-three Indian delegates met in Bombay. They founded the Indian National Congress. The delegates represent educated Indians in professions such as law, teaching, and journalism. A few years ago, Dadabhai Naoroji had already formed the East India Association, later joined with the Indian National Congress to form a bigger party.

Organized Fight
Dr. Zakir Hossein
      From the very beginning, the Indian National Congress was not a aggressive political party. It met annually and gave some suggestions to the rulers of the British Raj. The suggestions generally relate to civil rights and opportunities for Indians in government jobs. Its claim to represent all Indians, it represents only the educated and upper class of the society. But, it failed to attract all Muslims. Many Muslims have become distrustful of Hindu reformers who raised their voice against matters like religious conversion and killing of cows for their meat. For Hindus, the cow is a sacred animal so killed them work as a sin. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan launched a separate movement for Muslims and founded a college in 1875 in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh state, India. Later, this college became Aligarh University in 1921. The purpose of the college was to give modern education to India's Muslims. By 1900, the Indian National Congress formed a national party, but did not join all groups of Indian Society.

Gandhiji’s Protest 
    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (also known as Mahatma Gandhi) had been educated in London. He was a lawyer. He went to South Africa in 1893. After Gandhi was thrown out of the train because he was a colorful person sitting in a first-class seat, he took that emotion and used it to start the fight that many people of color were facing at the time. He was effective, and the government of South Africa abolished most of these rules and restrictions.
       Gandhi was leading the Salt March, an act of protest. As Gandhi came back to India in 1915, few people knew him. During Gandhi's rule, the Indians have continued to use a new method of achieving independence over the next few years.

Indian National Army by Subash Chandra Bose
Statue of Netaji Subhash Bose
Subash Ch, Bose and many of the leaders did not like the British decision to pull India into the Second World War. Twice (in 1937 and 1939) he became President of the Indian National Congress Party, the leading Indian political party in that time. He and many other members of the Indian National Congress Party, however, varied in many respects. He resigned and formed a new party called All India Forward Bloc. He was placed under house arrest by the British Government of India, but escaped in 1941. He entered Germany and was assisted by Germany and Japan in the war against the British in India. He traveled in the submarines of Germany and Japan in 1943 and reached Japan. He organized the National Army of India. The INA is fighting the British Raj in the northeast of India. Among many challenges, INA had many successes. Nevertheless, with the Japanese surrender in 1945, INA's activities were halted. Bose died in a plane crash, but the circumstances of his death are unknown.

Quit India (1942)
     The leaders of the Indian National Congress Party met in Bombay (Mumbai) on 8 August 1942. Leaders have adopted a policy to force the British out of India. Gandhiji's slogan "Do or die" has become a national slogan and the movement has become the Quit India Movement.

India’s Independence (1947-50)

On the evening of August 15, 1947, Britain handed over its formal political independence to India. A short time later, Gandhi, who was aged and sick, died of a bullet fired by a Hindu extremist called Nathuram Godse. The national leadership was then handed over to its chief lieutenant, Jawaharlal Nehru. On 3 June 1947, the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten announced the division of India into two countries : Union of India, and an Islamic Pakistan. Some people died in this partition, while others were separated from their families. On January 26, 1950. India has adopted its constitution, the longest constitution in the world. 

Taj Mahal
    Indian architecture is one of the items that captures this complex aspect of Indian culture.  The Taj Mahal and other Mughal architectural patterns, as well as Dravidian architectural patterns, show a combination of the ancient and local heritage of different regions of India and beyond. The local architectural styles of India also significantly witness to a regional architecture of the country.
The architecture of India is designed in history, culture and religion. Among a variety of architectural styles and practices, Hindu temple architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture are the most well-known historical styles. Each, but particularly the former, have a range of regional styles within them.
Khajuraho Temple
  The Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, in the northern style of Hindu temple architecture, is a 10th-century aerial image of a temple campus. An aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple from the top of the southern gopuram, looking north. The temple was rebuilt by the Vijayanagar Empire and is an example of Dravidian architecture. Also, one greater architecture example is Ajanta and Ellora Caves.
Kutub Minar, Delhi
      An early example of town planning was the Harappan architecture of the Indus Valley Civilization. People live in cities baked with brick houses, streets in a grid layout, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, granaries, citadels, and large non-residential buildings of clusters. Most other early Indian architecture was made of wood, which has not lasting for long time.
    Hindu temple architecture is divided into Dravidian and Nagara styles. Dravidian architecture flourished during the rule of the Chola, Chera, and Pandyan empires, as well as the Vijayanagara Empire.
    Islamic kingdom, the first major in India, was the Delhi Sultana, which led to the development of Indo-Islamic architecture, incorporating Indian and Islamic elements. The reign of the Mughal Empire, when the Mughal architecture was developed, is considered to be the zenith of the Indo-Islamic architecture, with the Taj Mahal being the high point of their contribution. Indo-Islamic architecture was motivated by the Rajput and Sikh styles also.
Art & Literature 

        The world of Indian music is made up of a combination of classical and regional music genres. Indian classical music is divided into two sections - Hindustani Classical Music in Northern India and Karnataka Music in South India. These two major music genres have been re-sourced in many subsections. Notable among the regional popular music are Rabindra Sangeet music, Hindi film songs and India-pop, and Baul and various other folk songs.
Different Dance mood of India
      Indian choreography is also divided into two main categories - "folk" and "classical". Famous folk dances in India are the Bhangra of Punjab, the Bihu dance of Assam, the Chhou dance of West Bengal and the Ghumur of Rajasthan. India's music drama academy has named eight dance acts in the country as classical Indian dances. These are Bharatanatyam in Tamil Nadu, Kathhak in Uttar Pradesh, Kathakali and Mohiniyattam in Kerala, Kuchipudi in Andhra Pradesh, Manipuri in Manipur, Odishi in Odisha, etc. These dances are narrative and mythological.
      The earliest literary works of India were first circulated orally and later in written form. Notable among these works are the classical works of Vedas, the Indian epic Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the dramatic emperor Shakuntalam, and Sangam literature composed in Tamil. Rabindranath Tagore, the first Nobel Laureate Poet in 1913, was the most famous of the modern Indian writers in the modern era.  
      Indian literature refers to literature created until 1947 on the Indian subcontinent and subsequently in the Republic of India. There are 22 officially recognized languages in the Republic of India. Indian literature's earliest works were transmitted orally. Sanskrit literature begins with oral literature of the Rig Veda collection of sacred hymns dating to the period 1500–1200 B.C.E. The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata appeared towards the end of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. Classical Sanskrit literature developed rapidly during the first few millennium B.C.E., as did the Tamil Sangam literature, and the Pāli Canon. In the medieval period, in the 9th and 11th centuries respectively, literature appeared in Kannada and Telugu. Later, in Marathi, Odia, and Bengali, literature appeared. Literature also began to appear in various dialects of Hindi, Persian, and Urdu. Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore became India's first Nobel Prize winner in literature at the beginning of the 20th century. There are two main literary prizes in contemporary Indian literature: the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship and the Jnanpith Prize. In Hindi and Kannada, eight Jnanpith Awards were given, followed by five in Bengali and Malayalam, four in Odia, four in Gujarati, Marathi, Telugu and Urdu, two in Assamese and two in Tamil, and one in Sanskrit.
        The famous poet and playwright Kalidasa wrote an epic: Raghuvamsha (Dynasty of Raghu); It was written in Classical Sanskrit rather than Epic Sanskrit. Among others written in Classical Sanskrit include Pini's Ashtadhyayi, which declared the grammar and phonetics of Classical Sanskrit. The Laws of Manu, a renowned text in Hinduism. Kālidāsa is often considered one of the greatest playwrights in Sanskrit literature and one of the greatest poets in Sanskrit literature; His Recognition of Shakuntala and Meghaduuta are the most famous Sanskrit plays. Other famous plays include Mricchakatika by Shudraka, Svapna Vasavadattam by Bhasa, and Ratnavali by Sri Harsha. Later poetic works include Geeta Govinda by Jayadeva. Some other famous works are Chanakya's Arthashastra and Vatsyayana's Kamasutra.
   The Pali Canon is native to India. Nevertheless, later Pali literature was still produced outside the Indian subcontinent of the mainland, especially in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Pali literature contains works of Buddhist philosophy, poetry, and some works of grammar. Jataka stories, Dhammapada, Atthakatha, and Mahavamsa are major works in Pali. Some of the main Pali grammarians were Kaccayana, Moggallana, and Vararuci (who started Marathi literature with saint-poets such as Dnyaneshwar, Tukaram, Ramdas, and Eknath. Modern Marathi literature was characterized by a theme of social reform. Though the earliest known Marathi inscription found at the foot of the statue at Shravanabelgola in Karnataka is dated c. 983 CE, the Marathi literature actually started with religious writings by the saint-poets belonging to Mahanubhava and Warkari sects. The prose used by Mahanubhava saints as their original medium, while Warkari saints liked poetry as the medium. The early saint-poets were Mukundaraj who wrote on Vivekasindhu, Dnyaneshwar (1275–1296) (who wrote Amrutanubhav and Bhawarthadeepika, which is popularly known as Dnyaneshwari, a 9000-couplets long commentary on the Bhagavad Gita) and Namdev, followed by the Warkari saint-poet Eknath (1528–1599). Mukteswar translated the great epic Mahabharata into Marathi. Social reformers like saint-poet Tukaram transformed into an enriched literary language. Ramdas's (1608–1682) Dasbodh & Manache Shlok, well-known literature of this tradition.
Goutam Buddha
          In the Twentieth century, several Indian laureates distinguished themselves not only in local Indian languages but also in English, a language inherited from the British. As a result of British colonization, India has developed its own unique dialect of English known as Indian English. Indian English typically follows UK spelling and pronunciation as opposed to US and books published in this country reflect this phenomenon. Indian English literature, however, tends to utilize more internationally recognizable vocabulary then does colloquial Indian English, in the same way, that American English literature does so as compared to American slang.
Michel Madhusudan
       India's only Nobel writer in literature was  Rabindranath Tagore, the Bengali writer, who wrote some of his work originally in English, and also did work of his own English translation from Bengali. India's best-selling English-language novelists are all-time folk writers like Chetan Bhagat, Manjiri Prabhu, and Ashok Banker. More recent prominent writers in English who are either Indian or of Indian origin and derive much inspiration from Indian themes are RK Narayan, Vikram Seth, Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Rus. Banerjee Divakaruni and Bharati Mukherjee. Raja Rao, Ashok Banker, Shashi Deshpande, Arnab Jan Deka, Amitav Ghosh, Rohinton Mistry, Vikram Chandra, Mukul Kesavan, Raj. Kamal Jha, Vikas Swarup, Khushwant Singh, Shashi Tharoor, Nayantara Sehgal, Anita Desai, Kiran Desai,  Jhumpa Lahiri, Kamala Markandaya, Gita Mehta, Manil Suri, Manjiri Bondhu. 
   Poetry is in the Indian literature category in English. Rabindranath Tagore was responsible for translating his own work into English in Bengali and Hindi. Derozio, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Toru Dutt, Romesh Chunder Dutt, Sri Aurobindo, Sarojini Naidu and his son Harindranath Chattopadhyay are other early notable poets in English.
Salman Rushdie
Anita Desai
       The poet and essayist P founded the Writers Workshop collective in Calcutta in the 1950s. Lal in English for promoting and publishing Indian Literature. The press was the first to publish Pritish Nandy, Sasthi Brata, and others; It continues to provide a forum for English writing in India. In nowadays, Indian poetry in English was published by 2 very different poets. Dom Moraes, winner of the Hawthornden Prize at the age of 20 for his first book of poems. A beginner went on to occupy a pre-eminent position in writing Indian poets in English. Nissim Ezekiel, who came from India's tiny Bene Israel Jewish community, created a voice and place for Indian poets in English and championed their work.
      Jayanta Mahapatra, Gieve Patel, A. K. Ramanujan, Arun Kolatkar, Dilip Chitre, Arvind Krishna Mehrotra, Eunice De Souza, Kersi Katrak, P. Lal and Kamala Das are among many others.
Rishi Aurobindo
    GS Sharat Chandra, Hoshang Merchant, Makarand Paranjape, Anuradha Bhattacharyya, Arundhathi Subramaniam, Jeet Thayil, Ranjit Hoskote, Sudeep Sen, Abhay K, Jerry Pinto, Younger generations of English-speaking poets, K Srilata, Gopi Kottoor, Arjan Tapan Kumar Pradhan Jan Deka, Anju Makhija, Robin Ngangom, Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Smita Agarwal and Vihang A. Naik among others.
     There also sprang from the Indian diaspora a generation of exiles. These include names such as Agha Shahid Ali, Sujata Bhatt, Richard Crasta, Yuyutsu Sharma, Shampa Sinha, Tabish Khair, Vikram Seth.
          In recent years, English-language writers of Indian origin are being published in the West at a growing rate.

        Salman Rushdie, Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai, and Arvind Adiga have won the prestigious Man Booker Prize, with Salman Rushdie going on to win the Booker of Bookers.
      Indian painting in Indian art has a very long tradition and history. The earliest Indian paintings were prehistoric rock paintings, the petroglyphs found in places like rock shelters in Bhimbetka, some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the rock shelters in Bhimbetka were nearly 10,000 years old.
Oil painting of Lt. Suhas Roy
Painting of Temple
       India's Buddhist literature is full of examples of texts depicting the army's palaces and the aristocratic class embellished with paintings, but the Ajanta Caves paintings are among the few survivors that are the most important. Manuscripts were possibly also done in smaller-scale paintings during this era, although the earliest survivors are from the medieval period. The Mughal painting represented a fusion of Persian miniature with ancient Indian styles, and its style disseminated from the 17th century throughout the princely Indian court of all faiths, each creating a local style. Company paintings were made for British clients under the British raj, from which art schools along Western lines were also introduced in the 19th century, leading to modern Indian painting, which is constantly changing to its Indian root.
       Indian paintings provide a range of esthetics that stretches from early civilization to today. Indian art has evolved over the years from being primarily spiritual in nature to beginning into a fusion of various cultures and traditions.

Place of Travel

 Travel is people's movement between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done with or without luggage by foot, bicycle, car, train, boat, bus, airplane, ship or other means, and can be one way or round trip. Traveling between successive movements can also include relatively short stays.
Darjeeling Himalaya
Thar Desert, Rajasthan
     Tourism in India is important for the growing economy and is growing rapidly. The World Travel and Tourism Council calculated that in 2018 tourism generated 16,92 lakh crore (US$ 245 billion) or 9.2 percent of India's GDP and supported 42,674 million jobs, 8.1 percent of India's total jobs. The sector is projected to grow by 2028 (9.8% of GDP) at an annual rate of 6.9% to around 32.15 lakh crore (US$ 462 billion). India's medical tourism sector was estimated to be worth 3 billion dollars in October 2015 and is expected to grow to 8-9 billion dollars by 2020. 184,298 patients from abroad were sent to India for medical treatment in 2014.
Dal Lake Kashmir
Gateway of India, Mumbai

Mysore Palace
Golden Temple Amritsar
 More than 10 million foreign tourists arrived in India in 2017 compared to 8.89 million in 2016, a 15.6% rise. In 2012, domestic tourist visits to all states and union territories amounted to 1.036.35 million, a 16.5 percent increase from 2011. In 2014, the most famous states for visitors were Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and Uttar Pradesh. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Agra, and Jaipur were in 2015 by foreign tourists the five most visited cities in India. The number of foreign tourist arrivals in Delhi is ranked 28th worldwide, while Mumbai is ranked 30th, Chennai 43rd, Agra. 45th, 52nd of Jaipur, and 90th of Kolkata.

Waterfalls, Karnataka
      India ranked 34th out of 140 countries worldwide in the 2019 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Survey. India improved its ranking by six places compared to the 2017 report, which was one of the biggest improvements among the top 25 percent ranked countries. The report ranks India's tourism industry's price competitiveness in 13th out of 140 countries. It mentions that India has quite a good infrastructure for air transport (ranked 33rd), particularly given the development stage, and fair infrastructure for land and port (ranked 28th). Natural resources (ranked 14th) and cultural resources and business travel (ranked 8th) are also high in the country. Some other aspects of its tourism infrastructure, however, remain somewhat underdeveloped. Through international comparison and low ATM penetration, the nation has many hotel rooms per capita. The World Tourism Organization announced that it ranked 16th in the world and 7th among Asian and Pacific countries in the 2012 Indian tourism receipts.
Trichy Temple, South India
Troy Train of Darjeeling

        National policies for tourism development and promotion are designed by the Ministry of Tourism. The Ministry consults and collaborates with other industry stakeholders, including various central ministries/agencies, state governments, union territories, and members of the private sector. There is a concerted effort to promote niche tourism products such as rural tourism, cruise, medical and eco-tourism. The Tourism Ministry maintains the Incredible India campaign focused on tourism promotion in India.


       After independence, India has made huge progress towards food security. The Indian population has tripled, and food-grain production is more quadrupled. There has been a substantial increase in the available food-grain per capita.
       Before 1955-1960s India relied on imports and food aid to meet domestic needs. However, two years of severe drought in 1965 and 1966 convinced India to reform its agricultural policy and that they could not rely on foreign aid and imports for food security. India took significant policy reforms focused on the target of food grain own-sufficiency. This ushered in India's Green Revolution. It began with the decision to adopt superior yielding, combining disease-resistant wheat varieties with better farming knowledge to improve productivity. The state of Punjab led India's green revolution and earned the distinction of being the breadbasket.  
      The initial production increase was concentrated in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh irrigated areas. With on-farm productivity and knowledge transfer focused on farmers and government officials, India's total food grain production soared. An Indian wheat farm hectare, which produced an average of 0.8 tons in 1948, produced 4.7 tons of wheat from the same land in 1975. Such rapid growth in farm productivity enabled India to become self-sufficient by the 1970s. It also empowered the smallholder farmers to seek further means to increase food staples per hectare. By 2000, Indian farms were targeting wheat varieties capable of yielding 7 tonnes of wheat/hectare.
      After wheat's significant policy success, India's Green Revolution Technology spreads to rice. However, since the irrigation infrastructure was very poor, Indian farmers innovated with tube-wells, to harvest groundwater. When gains from the new technology reached their limits in the early adoption of the states, the technology spread in the 1970s and 1980s to the states of eastern India - Bihar, Odisha, and West Bengal. The enduring benefits of improved seeds and new technology were primarily applied to irrigated areas accounting for about one-third of the plant are harvested. In the 1980s, Indian agricultural policy moved to "a demand line in the evolutionary growth trend," resulting in a shift in focus to other agricultural commodities such as oilseed, fruit, and vegetables. Farmers began to adopt improved dairy, fishery, and livestock methods and technologies, and to meet a growing population of diversified food needs.
    As with rice, the lasting benefits of improved seeds and improved farming technologies now largely depend on whether India develops infrastructure such as irrigation network, flood control systems, reliable power generation capacity, all-season rural and urban highways, cold storage to prevent spoilage, Modern retail, and competitive buyers of produce from Indian farmers. This is the focus of Indian agriculture policy.
       India ranks 74 out of 113 major countries in terms of the food security index. India's agricultural economy is undergoing structural changes. Between 1970 and 2011, the GDP share of agriculture fell from 43% to 16%. This is not because of the importance of agriculture or a consequence of agricultural policy. This is mainly because of rapid economic growth in services, industrial output, and non-agricultural sectors in India between 2000 and 2010.
       Agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan has played an important role in the green revolution. In 2013 NDTV awarded him as 25 living legends of India for outstanding contributions to agriculture and making India a food sovereign country.
     But GDP from Agriculture in India reduced to 4335.47 INR Billion in the second quarter of 2019 from 4860.94 INR Billion in the first quarter of 2019. GDP From Agriculture in India averaged 4140.81 INR Billion from 2011 till 2019, reaching an all-time high of 5869.41 INR Billion. in the fourth quarter of 2018 and a record low of 2690.74 INR Billion in the third quarter of 2011.


  The Indian irrigation infrastructure involves a network of major and minor river channels, well-based groundwater systems, reservoirs, and other agricultural rainwater harvesting projects. The largest of these is the groundwater system. Of India's 160 million hectares of cultivated land, groundwater wells can irrigate about 39 million hectares, and irrigation canals can irrigate an additional 22 million hectares. Only about 35% of India's agricultural land was reliably irrigated in 2010. Approximately 2/3 of India's cultivated land relies on monsoons. The developments in irrigation infrastructure over the past 50 years have helped India boost food security, decrease reliance on stars, increase agricultural productivity, and create opportunities for rural jobs.
    India's irrigation is mainly well based on groundwater. India is the world's largest well-equipped irrigation network with 39 million hectares (67 percent of its total irrigation) & China with 19 mha is second, the USA with 17 mha is fifth.
        The decoloration is again being observed by the river Periyar in Kerala. The decoloration of the Periyar River, which supplies drinking water to Kochi City and neighboring areas, has become the cause of concern for Kerala's people and government. The water in one stream turned pitch-black, it was milky near the regulator-cum-bridge of Pathalam.
     Telangana's Sita Rama Lift Irrigation Project has been authorised by the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. The plan will be completed in three years, resulting in the submergence of nearly 1,930-hectare and 157 villages.

Science & Technology 

  India ranks third among the world's most attractive technology transaction investment destinations. Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Science and Technology of the Union, reiterated that technology is a high priority for the government and aims to make science-centered citizens. Modern India's focus on science and technology is strong, realizing it is a key element of economic growth. India is among the topmost countries in the field of scientific research in the world, positioned as one of the top five nations in space exploration of the field. India has regularly researched space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). India is taking a leading role in launching satellites for the SAARC nations, generating revenue by offering its space facilities to use in other countries.


       With the support of Government, adequate investment and development have incurred in various sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, space research, and nuclear power project through scientific research. For example, India is becoming increasingly self-reliant in nuclear technology.
         After Chandrayaan-1, Chandrayaan-2 consisted of a lunar orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The key scientific aim is to map and study the differences in the composition of the lunar surface and the origin and quantity of lunar water. Chandrayaan-2 launch was originally scheduled to take place on 14 July 2019 at 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time), with landing expected on 6 September 2019. Nonetheless, due to a technical error, the release was aborted and rescheduled.  The launch was on the first operational flight of a GSLV MK III M I on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST).

Future Plan

   India is working aggressively to become a leader in industrialization and technological development. Significant developments are anticipated in the nuclear energy sector as India is seeking to expand its nuclear capacity. The Indian pharmaceutical industry is expected to be transformed by nanotechnology. A major revamp is also taking place in the agricultural sector, with the government investing heavily in the technology-driven Green Revolution. Through the Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) Policy-2013, the Government of India, among other things, aims to place India among the top five scientific powers in the world. Space Research Organization (ISRO) will launch its first Indian human mission by 2022.

India's Military Power       

Indian Army
          The Indian Armed Forces are the Republic of India's military forces. It is made up of three uniformed professional services, the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, and the Indian Air Force. In addition, the Indian Armed Forces are supported by the Indian Coast Guard and paramilitary organizations (Assam Rifles and Special Frontier Forces, CRPF) and various interservice commands and institutions such as the Strategic Forces Command, the Andaman and Nicobar Command and the Integrated Defense Staff. General Chat Chat Lounge India's president is the Indian Armed Forces Supreme Commander. The Indian Armed Forces are under the MOD (Ministry of Defense) of the Government of India. Newly appointed additional post of COD (Chief of Defence), declared by Prime Minister on 15 Aug 2019. 
Rafale Fighter
       With the strength of over 1.4 million active personnel, it is the world's second-largest military force and has the world's largest volunteer army. According to a 2015 estimate by Credit Suisse, the Indian Armed Forces are the fifth-most powerful military in the world. It is also the fourth-largest defense budget in the world. It is important to note that the Central Armed Police Forces, known from a colonial perspective as' Paramilitary Forces,' are not armed forces. As such, they are headed by Indian Police Service civilian officers and are controlled by the Home Affairs Ministry, not the Defense Ministry. These are departments of the federal government. The Indian armed forces participated in a number of major military operations, including 1947, 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pakistani wars, the Portuguese-Indian war, the Sino-Indian war, the Chola incident in 1967, the Sino-Indian war in 1987. Skirmish, the Kargil War, and, among others, the Siachen conflict. Since 1962, India honors its armed forces and military personnel annually on Armed Forces Flag Day, 7 December. 

Indian Army                             1,237,117 (Act.)   960,000 (Reserve)
Indian Navy                                   67,228   (Act.)      55,000 (Res.)
Indian Air Force                         139,576    (Act.)    140,000 (Res.)
Indian Coast Guard                     11,000
Assam Rifles                                  66,000
Special Frontier Force               10,000
Border Security Force             257,363
Central Industrial Security Force    144,418
Central Reserve Police Force    313,678
Indo-Tibetan Border Police        89,432
National Security Guard                7,350
Sashastra Seema Bal                     76,337
Railway Protection Force           70,000
National Disaster Response Force 13,000
Defense Security Corps                       31,000
Special Protection Group                     3,000
State Armed Police Forces             400,000
Civil Defense                                        500,000 (Res.)
Home Guard                                        487,800 (Res.)

Apache Helicopter
There are about 4000 main battle tanks, 2000 armored personnel carriers, 4300 artillery pieces and 200 light helicopters. HAL has issued a firm order to deliver 114 HAL Light Combat Helicopters to the Indian Army. India proposes the progressive induction of as many as 248 Arjun MBTs and the development and induction of the Arjun MK-II variant, 1,657 Russian-origin T-90S main battle tanks, apart from the ongoing upgrade of its T-72 fleet. The Arjun MK-II trial started in August 2013 with the production of the Pinaka multiple rocket launcher. INS Vikramaditya (aircraft carrier), INS Chakra (nuclear powered submarine), the Prithvi-III ballistic ship-launched missile, Brahmos Supersonic Cruise missile, defense satellites (developed by ISRO), India's Sukhoi Su-30 MKI, India's Tejas role fighter aircraft, newly attached with Air force Rafael, AC-130 Tactical Transport Aircraft, India has ordered 15 Heavy-Lift Chinook Helicopters from the US,  Apache helicopters. These are some weapons and also many more which is not discussed. 

         Prithvi-I short-range ballistic missile 150km range, Prithvi-II short-range ballistic missile 250–350km, Prithvi-III short-range ballistic missile 350–600km, Agni-I Short / Medium-Range Ballistic Missile 700–1,250km, Agni-II medium-range ballistic missile 2,000–3,000km, Agni-III Intermediate-range ballistic missile 3,500–5,000km, Agni-IV Intermediate-range ballistic missile 4,000 km Agni-V Intermediate / Intercontinental ballistic missile and MIRV 5,000–8,000km, Agni-VI Intercontinental ballistic missile and MIRV 8,000–12,000km, under development Surya Intercontinental ballistic missile and MIRV 12,000–16,000km, Dhanush short-range ballistic missile 350 km Operational Sagarika (K-15) Submarine-launched ballistic missile 700 km (430 miles) Operational K-4 Submarine-launched ballistic missile 3,500 km (2,200 miles) tested Brahmos, Brahmos-II, Sky, Nirbhay, Astra, Nag, Prahar are some supersonic, hypersonic sub-sonic cruise nuclear weapons. 

Rafael - Clin Chit Deal

      The Supreme Court dismissed the petitions seeking a re-examination of its judgment in the Rafale fighter jet deal with the French firm Dassault Aviation. On 10 May, the Supreme Court reserved a verdict on the petitions seeking a re-examination of its findings that there was no scope to challenge the decision-making process in the procurement of 36 Rafale fighter jets. On 14 December 2018, the SC dismissed the petitions seeking an investigation into the alleged irregularities in the Rs 58,000 Crore Agreement.
 Test of Spike LR Missiles (29.11.19)
     Indian Army successfully test-fired two Spike LR long-range Anti-Tank Missiles from an Infantry School at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Army Chief Gen Bipin Rawat and several commanders present at the firing of the newly acquired missiles which are expected to further boost the Army’s combat prowess.
What is Spike LR missile?
      This is a 4th generation missile that can target with precision at ranges up to 4.5 km. It is developed and modified by Israel’s Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. The Spike LR missile is man-portable and has its own vehicle and helicopter-launched variants. It will bolster the Indian Soldier’s firepower capability.

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