Poverty : One of Major Problem in India (Village to Mega-slum)

by - November 06, 2019

        Poverty is an economic situation when a person loses the ability to purchase essential things of life because of attaining minimum living standards and a modest income. Cultural voluntarism and aggression, population pressures, economic distress, social and political problems and natural disasters like floods, tides, droughts, etc. cause poverty. Two-thirds of people in India live in poverty.  Over 25-28% is even less than $ 1.25/day available - they are considered extremely poor. This makes the Indian subcontinent one of the world's poorest countries; the affected members of Indian society, women, and children, are suffering the most.
      The most contrasted country has enjoyed growth rates of up to 10% over many years and is one of the largest economies in the world, with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US $ 1,644 billion. But only a small percentage of the Indian population has benefited from this impressive economic boom so far, as most of the people in India are still living below the poverty line.
Poverty - Village to Mega-Slum
More than 8 crores of people in India are considered poor. Most of them live in the countryside and keep afloat with odd jobs. The lack of jobs in rural areas that provides a living wage pushes many Indians into fast-growing metropolitan areas like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, or Calcutta. Most of them expect a life of poverty and desperation in the mega-slums, consisting of millions of corrugated ironworks, without an adequate supply of drinking water, without waste disposal and, in many cases, without electricity. The poor hygiene conditions are the cause of diseases such as cholera, typhus, and dysentery, which especially children suffer and die.
Malnutrition - Not even some rice a day
India is one of the world's top countries when it comes to malnutrition -  more than 200 million people have sufficient access to food, including 61 million children. 7.8 million infants were found to have less than 2.5 kilograms of birth weight - alarming figures for a country often referred to as the emerging market.
Although child labor for children under the age of 14 in India is prohibited by law, according to official figures, 12.5 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are working. Aid agencies assume that in reality, there are many more estimating that 65 million children between 6 and 14 years do not go to school.
Child Labor and Lack of Education
     Instead, Indian children are believed to contribute to the livelihood of their families in order to ensure survival; They work in the field, in factories, in quarries, in private households, and in prostitution.
Child Labours
    According to UNICEF, about 25% of children in India have no access to education. The number of children excluded from school is higher among girls than boys. Although women and men are treated equally under Indian law, girls and women, especially in the lower social caste, are considered inferior and oppressed by their fathers, brothers, and husbands. Without education, the chance of finding a living wage from employment in India is virtually hopeless.
Child Marriage-Early end of Childhood
Child Marriage
Mother and daughter impacted by poverty in India in spite of banning minors from marrying in 2006, it is still widespread in many regions of India. The main encouragers in this practice are young girls, who are still children themselves and become mothers too early. Many of them die at birth. According to an investigation by the medical journal The Lancet, 44.5% of girls are still married in India before they are of legal age. Due to poverty, many parents encourage early marriages for their daughters to hope for better lives. Also increasing unemployment plays a major role for poverty in India.
 (Collecting from the news channel....) 
           Indians ' monthly spending has declined in four decades for the first time, indicating that poverty has increased in India in recent years, a front-page report claimed by the Business Standard. It says the average consumer spending in India registered a dip of 3.7 percent in 2017-18 as compared to the consumer spending in 2011-12.
           Quoting experts, the report says the "most worrying" trend is that food consumption in rural India has declined by 10 percent, "implying worsening malnutrition in the country".
     This report is based on the latest Consumer Expenditure Survey - Key Indicators: Household Consumer Expenditure in India-conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
      The Business Standard reports that this is the first time in four decades that consumer spending has declined in real terms.
     This is the first time since 1972-73 when consumer expenditure has declined in real terms, the paper quoted Himanshu, associate professor at the Jawaharlal Nehru University's Center for Economic Studies and Planning as saying.
      In 1972-73, the decline was due to a global oil crisis. "Before that, consumption declined in the mid-1960s due to a crisis in domestic food," the report said.
Action may be taken as Solution
  • The population in India has been growing rapidly. The growth rate of the population is 1.8%. For the removal of poverty the growth rate of the population should be lowered.
  • Special measures to tackle unemployment problems and hidden unemployment should be taken. It is important to develop agriculture. In order to create jobs, small-scale and cottage industries should be built in rural areas. 
  • A mere increase in production and control overpopulation growth will not remove poverty in India. It is important that the income of the distribution in inequality should be reduced.
  • In states like Orissa, Nagaland, U.P, and Bihar etc. The proportion of the poor in the total population is high. Special investment concessions in these regions should be granted by Govt. More PSU's should be established in these states.
  • The public distribution system (PDS) should be strengthened to remove poverty. The poor section should get food grains at subsidized rates and in ample quantity.
  • Govt. should take appropriate steps to meet the minimum needs of the poorer eg, the supply of drinking water and provision of primary health centers and primary education.
  • To remove poverty, it is necessary to increase the productivity of the poor. The poor should be given more employment. More investment should be made in the public and private sectors to generate employment.
  • India should adopt labor-intensive techniques of production. We should have technical development in our economy in such a way that labor resources can be fully employed.
  • Stability in prices helps remove poverty. If prices continue to rise, the poor will become poorer. So Govt. Should do it best to keep prices under control.
  • Agriculture should be developed to remove poverty. The rapid rate of growth of agricultural production will help remove urban as well as rural poverty. Agriculture should be mechanized and modernized. Marginal farmers should be given financial assistance.
  • The slow rate of poor child growth is the main cause of poverty. So the growth rate must be accelerated. In 2003-04 the growth rate has been 6.5% despite that 26% of the population is below the poverty line.
Below Poverty Level free Gas connection
       Though Running Govt. takes a lot of projects such as Sab ka Sath Sab ka Bikas, Swach Bharat, Toilet for all, Housing for all, BPL Ujjwala Gas Connection, Mudra Loan, etc. but I think it is not enough to fight with this devastating poverty. First of all, required to create minimum employment positions for all, established business opportunities & development, so that everyone may get an opportunity to live their normal life.
 In shortly, We could eliminate poverty, practically overnight, by giving every human being free of charge, the Five Basic Necessities of Life are :

1) Nutritious food. 

2) Basic and secure housing and utilities. 

3) Basic clothing is applicable to the climate. 

4) Comprehensive health and mental care. 

5) Basic people education, including four years at a university or college.

Happy Face of Poor Children

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